Kaymakli Underground City is one of the most fascinating ancient sites in Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolian region, the underground city was constructed by the Hittites and expanded by the Byzantines. It was used as a place of refuge in times of war and was home to thousands of people.
History of the Underground City
The Kaymakli Underground City was first built in the 8th century BC by the Hittites. It was expanded over the centuries by the Byzantines and then by the Seljuks. The city was used as a place of refuge in times of war and was home to thousands of people. It was used until the 19th century, when the city was abandoned.
Structure of the Underground City
The Kaymakli Underground City is composed of eight floors, each with its own distinct features. The first floor is the most extensive, with stables, storage rooms, and other areas. The second floor contains living quarters, a church, and a winery. The third floor is the most important, as it contains the ventilation shafts and the main gate. The fourth floor contains a kitchen, a bakery, and a well. The fifth floor contains a church, a mosque, and a mill. The sixth floor contains a school, a meeting room, and a cemetery. The seventh floor contains a chapel and a refectory. The eighth floor contains the escape tunnels and a temple.
Features of the Underground City
- Ventilation shafts: The underground city has a complex ventilation system, allowing air to circulate throughout the different levels.
- Wine cellar: The underground city has a wine cellar, where wine was stored and aged.
- Tunnels: The city has several escape tunnels, which were used to escape from enemies.
- School: The city has a school, where children were taught about religion and other topics.
Visiting the Underground City
The Kaymakli Underground City is open to the public and can be visited year-round. Visitors can explore the various levels of the city, including the living quarters, stables, ventilation shafts, and escape tunnels. Visitors can also learn about the history of the city and the people who lived there.
Tips for Visiting the Underground City
- Wear comfortable shoes, as the floors can be uneven and slippery.
- Bring a flashlight, as the underground city is dark.
- Bring a camera, as the underground city is a fascinating place to photograph.
- Be aware of your surroundings, as the underground city can be a dangerous place.
The Kaymakli Underground City is a fascinating ancient site that offers visitors a unique insight into the history of the region. It is a must-see for anyone visiting Turkey.